Publications-Birring

Papers

74. Anmol Birring, “Selection of Calibration Reflectors for Corrosion Resistant Alloy (CRA) Piping” Materials Evaluation, March 2016, p 361-366
Abstract. Refracted longitudinal waves are typically used for inspection of corrosion resistant alloy welds in piping. Calibration is done on notches or side drilled holes. The paper shows that refracted longitudinal waves when calibrated on side drilled holes as per certain engineering codes will have poor sensitivity for detecting ID connected discontinuities/cracks. This loss of sensitivity is caused by mode conversion of refracted longitudinal waves from corner reflectors. Paper recommends update of such codes.

73. Anmol Birring, “Ultrasonic Inspection of Welds in Corrosion Resistant Alloy (CRA) Piping” Materials Evaluation, December, 2014, p 1468-74
Abstract: The paper presents refracted longitudinal wave based phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) techniques for inspection of CRA welds. CRA configurations covered in the paper include A625 closure welds, A625 butter welds and duplex stainless steel welds.

72. Anmol Birring, Ram P. Samy and Stephen Rowland “Testing and Training of NDT Technicians” Materials Evaluation, September, 2011

71. Anmol S. Birring, “Sizing Discontinuities by Ultrasonics”, Materials Evaluation, vol 68, Number 11, November 2010, p 1208-1215
Abstract: The paper presents ultrasonic methods for sizing discontinuities. These include amplitude, dB drop, multiple-wave mode, crack tip diffraction, TOFD and phased array. The paper states while these methods can size flaws, each has its limitation.

70. Anmol S. Birring, “Electric Power Applications of Magnetic Particle Testing”, Materials Evaluation, vol 67, Number 5, May 2009, p 490-498

69. Anmol S. Birring, “Selection of Phased Array Parameters for Weld Testing”, Materials Evaluation, vol 66, Number 9, September 2008, p 931-934
Abstract: The paper shows how flaw definition (sizing) can be improved by two phased array probe parameters – active aperture and frequency. The parameters define the focal spot size of the PA probe. Probes with larger active aperture are recommended for thicker materials.

68. Anmol S. Birring, “Ultrasonic Phased Arrays for Weld Testing”, Replacement Article for  Material Evaluation, vol 66, Number 3, March 2008. Paper Copyright by Materials Evaluation, ASNT, Columbus, Ohio.
Abstract: The paper presents phased array method for weld testing and show location of flaws relative to the weld. This paper will help prepare students taking the API-QUPA examination

67. Anmol S. Birring, “Electric Power Applications of Magnetic Particle  Testing “, Nondestructive Testing Handbook, Magnetic Testing Methods, ASNT, 2008.

66. Anmol S. Birring, “Electric Power Applications of Ultrasonic Testing “, Nondestructive Testing Handbook vol 7, Ultrasonic Testing, 3rd Edition, ASNT, 2007, ch 12, pp 457-476

65. Anmol S. Birring, “Electric Power Applications of Ultrasonic Testing”, Material Evaluation, vol 65, Number 6, June 2007, p 543-553

64. Anmol S. Birring, “NDE Methods for inspection of Non-Ferromagnetic tubing”, API Conference, San Francisco, October, 2006

63. Anmol S. Birring, “Reliability in Detection of HTHA”, ASNT Fall Conference, Houston, 2006

62. Anmol S. Birring, “Reliability and Accuracy of Eddy Current Testing for Petrochemical Plants,” ASNT Fall Conference, Columbus, OH,  October 2005.

61. A. S. Birring et al. “Ultrasonic Inspection of Welds by TOFD: Standards, Codes and Guidelines,” Materials Evaluation, September 2005.

60. A. S. Birring, M. Riethmuller, and K. Kawano, “Ultrasonic Techniques for Detection of High Temperature Hydrogen Attack,” Materials Evaluation, February 2005.
Abstract:  During 2004 inspections of a refinery in Le Harve France, HTHA was detected in a C-0.5 Mo 65 mm thick reactor. The damage was so advanced that the reactor had to be permanently taken out of service immediately after the inspection. The paper presents methods used for detection of high temperature hydrogen attack in the base metal and the heat affected zone of the weld.

59. A. S. Birring and G. A. Marshall, “Eddy Current Testing in the Petrochemical Industry,”  Materials Evaluation, November 2003.

58. A. S. Birring, “Eddy Current Testing: Training and Testing of Technicians,” ASNT International Conference on Inspection in the Petrochemical Industry, Houston, June 2003.

57. A. S. Birring, “Sizing of ID Pits in Tubes by Eddy Current Testing,” ASNT International Conference on Inspection in the Petrochemical Industry, Houston, June 2001.

56. A.S. Birring, “Strategy for Feedwater Heater Inspections: Case Studies,” Proc. of the 6th EPRI BOP Heater Exchanger Inspection Conference, Scottsdale, Arizona, June 2000.

55. A. S. Birring, ” NDT for Non-Nuclear Power Generation: Pressure Vessels, Piping and Turbines,” Encylopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Elsevier Science Limited, UK, 2001.

54. A. S. Birring, “Selection of NDT Techniques for Inspection of Heat Exchanger Tubing,” Materials Evaluation, March 2001.
The state of the art paper presents NDT techniques for heat exchanger tubing inspections. Methods are presented for non-ferromagnetic tubing and ferromagnetic tubing. Methods include conventional eddy current testing, full saturation eddy current testing, remote field eddy current testing and ultrasonic IRIS. Advantages and limitations of the methods are included

53. S. N. Rowland and A. S. Birring, “Inspection of Carbon Steel Tubes with Aluminum Fins,” Proc. of the 4th EPRI Balance of Plant Conference, Jackson Hole, Wyoming, June 1996.

52. A. S. Birring, Jim Elliott, and C. P. Hsio, “Detection of Hydrogen Attack in the Base Metal and Weld HAZ,” ASME, PVP Conference Hawaai, 1995

51. A. S. Birring, “Fossil Plant NDE Inspections with High Economic Benefits” Proceeding of the EPRI Fossil Plant Inspections Conference, San Antonio, Texas, January, 1994.

50. A. S. Birring, “Improving Flaw Detectibility of a Turbine Bore Inspection Systems,” Proceeding of the EPRI Steam Turbine/Generator Workshop, Albany, New York, July 1993.

49. A. S. Birring, “Eddy Current Inspection of Non-Ferromagnetic and Ferromagnetic Tubing,” Proceedings of the ASNT 1993 International Chemical and Petroleum Industry Inspection Conference, Houston, Texas, June 1993.

48. A. S. Birring, “Improving Flaw-Detecting Ability of Automated Ultrasonic Inspection Systems,” Materials Evaluation, February, 1993.

47. A. S. Birring, “An Integrated Approach for Eddy Current Inspection of Condensers and Feedwater Heaters,” Proceedings of the EPRI Conference on Balance of Plant Heat Exchanger NDE Workshop, Key West, Florida, May 1992.

46B. A. S. Birring, “Standard Guide for Ultrasonic Crack Sizing,” April 1992

46. S. J. Hudak, A. S. Birring, M. Bartlett, and J. J. Hanley, “Control of Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth in NGV Fuel Cylinders,” Proceedings of the International Conference on NGV Cylinders, Vancouver, Canada, October 1989.

45C. A. S. Birring, G. A. Lamping, W. R. Van der Veer, and J. J. Hanley, “Ultrasonic Inspection Method and System for Detection of Steeple Cracking in Turbine Disk Rims,” Steam Turbine/Generator NDE Workshop and Vendor Equipment Fair, North Carolina, September 1989.

45B. K. Kawano and A. S. Birring, “Hydrogen Damage Detection by a Non-Destructive Technique,” Materials Performance, August 1989.
The ultrasonic backscatter method for detecting HTHA is presented.

45. A. S. Birring, “Ultrasonic Inspection of Steam-Turbine Disk Rims,” Proceedings of World Conference on NDT, Amsterdam, April 1989.

44. G. P. Singh and A. S. Birring, “Ultrasonic Characterization of Grains and Flaws in Ceramics,” Proceedings of the 17th Symposium on Nondestructive Evaluation, San Antonio, Texas, April 1989.

43. A. S. Birring, M. Bartlett, and K. Kawano, “Ultrasonic Detection of Hydrogen Attack in Steels,” Corrosion, March 1989, pp. 259-263.
The ultrasonic backscatter method for detecting high temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA) is presented.

42. A. S. Birring, D. G. Alcazar, J. J. Hanley, and S. Gehl, “Ultrasonic Detection of Hydrogen Damage,” Materials Evaluation, March 1989, pp. 345-350.

41. A. S. Birring and H. Kwun, “Ultrasonic Measurement of Wear,” Tribology International, February 1989, pp. 33-37.

40. (Invited Paper) A. S. Birring, “Nondestructive Detection of Material Degradation Caused by Creep and Hydrogen Attack,” Proceedings of Material Research Society Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, November 1988.

39. A. S. Birring and R. Manning, “Inspection for Dovetail and Steeple Cracking in Turbine Disks,” Proceedings of EPRI Fossil Plant Inspections Conference, San Antonio, Texas, November 1988.

38. A. S. Birring, D. G. Alcazar, J. J. Hanley, and S. Gehl, “Ultrasonic Assessment of Creep and Hydrogen Damage in Fossil Plant Components,” Proceedings of EPRI Fossil Plant Inspections Conference, San Antonio, Texas, November 1988.

37. A. S. Birring, W. R. Van der Veer, and R. A. Cervantes, “Ultrasonic Inspection of Steam Turbine Disk Rims,” Proceedings of the ASME Joint Power Generation Conference, Philadelphia, September 1988.

36. A. S. Birring, D. G. Alcazar, J. J. Hanley, G. A. Lamping, and S. Gehl, “Ultrasonic Methods for Detection of Service-Induced Damage in Fossil Plant Components,” Life Extension and Assessment: Nuclear and Fossil Power-Plant Components, edited by C. E. Jaske, ASME, June 1988, p. 71-76.

35. A. S. Birring, D. G. Alcazar, J. J. Hanley, and S. Gehl, “Detection of Creep Damage by Ultrasonics,” Review of Progress in Quantitative NDE, Vol. 8, 1988.

34. P. J. Pantermuehl and A. S. Birring, “Ultrasonic Procedure for Measuring Bolt-Up and Long-Term Relaxation Stresses in Steel Studs,” Materials Evaluation, May 1988, pp. 708-711.

33. A. S. Birring, “Affect of Texture on Ultrasonic Inspection of Extruded Pipes,” Ultrasonic Methods for Seamless Steel Pipes and Tubes, Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (printed in Japanese), April 1988, pp. 146-149.

32. S. Gehl and A. S. Birring, “Utility Experience with EPRI’s Boiler Inspection Software,” Proceedings of the EPRI Conference on Boiler Tube Failures in Fossil Plants, Edited by B. Dooley and D. Broske, EPRI Report CS-5500-SR, 1988, pp. 5-49 to 5-58.

31. A. S. Birring, H. Kwun, J. J. Hanley, G. J. Hendrix, D. G. Alcazar, and J. F. Wakenell, “Ultrasonic Measurement of Wear,” Proceedings of Sixteenth NDE Symposium, San Antonio, Texas, April 1987, pp. 33-38.

30. A. S. Birring, “Overview of Factors Affecting Ultrasonic Inspection of Tension Leg Platforms,” Proceedings of the Sixth ASME Symposium on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Houston, Texas, February 1987, pp. 513-516.

29. A. S. Birring, “Corrosion Monitoring of Underwater Steel Structures,” Corrosion Monitoring in Industrial Plants Using Nondestructive Testing and Electromechanical Methods ASTM STP 908, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1986, pp. 179-190.

28. G. P. Singh, A. S. Birring, G. A. Lamping, and J. R. Scheibel, “Advanced NDE Techniques for Creep Damage Detection,” Proceedings of the EPRI Fossil Plants Inspection Workshop, EPRI Report CS-5320, San Antonio, Texas, September 1986, pp. 3-123 to 3-128.

27. A. S. Birring and R. A. Cervantes, “Detection and Sizing of Cracks in Turbine Disk Steeples,” Proceedings of the EPRI Fossil Plant Inspections Workshop, EPRI Report CS-5320, San Antonio, Texas, September 1986, pp. 5-43 to 5-50.

26. J. J. Hanley, A. S. Birring, G. P. Singh, and J. R. Scheibel, “Maintenance Management Software for Boiler Tubing in Fossil-Fired Power Plants,” Proceedings of the EPRI Fossil Plant Inspections Workshop, EPRI Report CS-5320, San Antonio, Texas, September 1986, pp. 2-11 to 2-18.

25. A. S. Birring and J. J. Hanley, “Effect of Cavities on Ultrasonic Attenuation and Velocity,” Proceedings of 2nd International Symposium on Nondestructive Characterization of Materials, Vol. 2, Edited by C. Rudd, 1986, pp. 673-681.

24. G. A. Lamping, A. S. Birring, and J. R. Scheibel, “NDE and Life Assessment of Boiler Components,” Proceedings of the EPRI Conference on Life Extension and Assessment of Fossil Plants, EPRI Report CS-5208, Washington, D.C., June 1986, pp. 1023-1038.

23. A. S. Birring, G. A. Lamping, and J. R. Scheibel, “Economic Benefits from Nondestructive Inspection and Repair of Waterwall Boiler Tubes,” Proceedings of the 13th Inter-Ram Conference for the Electric Power Industry, Syracuse, New York, June 1986, pp. 392-397.

22. A. S. Birring, E. A. Franke, J. F. Crane, T. L. Allen, and A. P. Smith, “Designing an Underwater Steel Inspection System,” Proceedings of the Fifth Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering Symposium, Tokyo, Japan, April 1986, pp. 332-336.

21. A. S. Birring, S. N. Rowland, and G. L. Burkhardt, “Electromagnetic Methods to Detect Corrosion in Aircraft Structures,” Review of Progress in Quantitative NDE, June 1985, Vol. 5, pp. 1549-1556.

20. A. S. Birring and A. Smith, “Radiographic and Tomographic Approaches to Detect and Measure Deterioration in Wood,” Proceedings of the Fifteenth NDE Symposium, San Antonio, Texas, April 1985, pp. 143-146.

19. A. S. Birring, A. Smith, and R. L. Brackett, “Development of a Methodology for Underwater Inspection of Steel Structures,” Proceedings of the Fourth International Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering Symposium, Dallas, Texas, February 1985, pp. 416-420.

18. A. Singh and R. McClintock, “Underwater Tests of Corroded Steel Piles with the Thickness Measurement by Beam Alignment System,” ASME Transactions, Journal of Energy Resources Technology, June 1984, Vol. 106, No. 2, pp. 257-259.

17. A. Singh, and R. McClintock, “Computer-Controlled System for Nondestructive Thickness Measurement of Corroded Steel Structures,” ASME Transactions, Journal of Energy Resources Technology, December 1983, Vol. 105, No. 4, pp. 499-502.

16. A. Singh, “Flaw Location Errors in Extruded Stainless Steel Pipes,” Ultrasonics, November 1983, Vol. 21, No. 6, pp. 270-274.

15. W. D. Jolly, A. Singh, C. A. Keeney, and S. Pollio, “Acoustic Methods for Detection of Deterioration in Timber Waterfront Structures,” Review of Progress in Quantitative NDE, Vol. 3, Santa Cruz, California, August 1983, pp. 819-826.

14. A. Singh, R. King, and Ron Brackett, “Economic Model to Determine the Benefits of Inspecting Waterfront Structures,” Review of Progress in Quantitative NDE, Vol. 3, Santa Cruz, California, August 1983, pp. 835-846.

13. R. McClintock, A. Singh, and A. Smith, “Field Tests of a System for Underwater Inspection of Corroded Steel Piles,” Review of Progress in Quantitative NDE, Vol. 3, Santa Cruz, California, August 1983, pp. 1417-1424.

12. A. Singh, W. D. Jolly, K. J. Krzywosz, E. Ruescher, and C. A. Keeney, “Investigation of Inspection Techniques for Timber Waterfront Structures,” Proceedings of the Fourteenth Symposium on Nondestructive Evaluation, San Antonio, Texas, 1983, pp. 513-519.

11. A. Singh, R. McClintock, T. W. Rudwick, and R. L. Brackett, “Automated Inspection of Corroded Steel Structures,” Materials Evaluation, Vol. 41, No. 5, 1983, pp. 568-570.

10. A. Singh, J. Lankford, D. Davidson, and Y. Hasegawa, “Effect of Texture on Reliability of Ultrasonic Testing of Extruded Stainless Steel Pipes,” Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 1, Edited by D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, New York, New York: Plenum Press, 1982, pp. 628-838.

9. A. Singh, Y. Hasegawa, and R. L. Brackett, “Underwater Nondestructive Thickness Measurement of Corrosion-Pitted Steel Structures,” Proceedings of the Fourteenth Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, 1982, pp. 725-734.

8. G. M. Light, A. Singh, and T. Rudwick, “Ultrasonic Transducer Characterization Using the Combined Schlieren, Photoelastic, and Raman Nath System,” Materials Evaluation, Vol. 40, No. 7, 1982, pp. 783-790.

7. C. P. Burger, A. J. Testa, and A. Singh, “Photoelastic Visualization in the Development of Quantitative Ultrasonics,” Elastic Wave Scattering and Propagation, Edited by V. K. Varadhan and V. V. Varadhan, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1982, pp. 197-206.

6. C. P. Burger, A. Testa and A. Singh, “Dynamic Photoelasticity as an Aid in Developing New Ultrasonic-Test Methods,” Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 22, No. 4, 1982, pp. 147-154.

5. A. Singh, J. Lankford, D. Davidson, and Y. Hasegawa, “Effect of Crystal Anisotropy on Acoustic Wave Velocities in Extruded Stainless Steel Pipes,” Proceedings of the VII Inter-American Conference on Materials Technology, Mexico City, Mexico, 1981, pp. 333-341.

4. A. Singh and G. P. Singh, “Sizing of Longitudinal Seam Weld Flaws in Thin-Walled Tubes by Ultrasonic Methods,” Thirteenth Symposium on Nondestructive Evaluation, San Antonio, Texas, 1981, pp. 161-172.

3. G. P. Singh and A. Singh, “A Technique for Notch Depth Determination Using Pulse-Echo Rayleigh Waves,” Materials Evaluation, Vol. 39, No. 13, 1981, pp. 783-790.

2. A. Singh, C. P. Burger, L W. Schmerr, and L. W. Zachary, “Dynamic Photoelasticity as an Aid to Sizing Surface Cracks by Frequency Analysis,” Mechanics of Nondestructive Testing, Edited by W. W. Stinchcomb, New York, New York: Plenum Publishing, 1980, pp. 277-292.

1. C. P. Burger and A. Singh, “An Ultrasonic Technique for Sizing Surface Cracks,” Proceedings of the AF/DARPA Review of Progress in Quantitative NDE, La Jolla, California, 1980, pp. 436-442.

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Presentations

14. A. S. Birring “Testing and Training Issues of NDT Technicians”,  Presented at the ASNT Fall Conference, Houston, Texas, November, 2010

13. A. S. Birring and Craig Monahan, ” Phased Array in Lieu of Radiography”,  Presented at the ASNT Fall Conference, Houston, Texas, November, 2010

12. Anmol Birring “Careers in Inspections and NDE” Presented at the Technology Campus of South Texas College, McAllen, Texas, May 20, 2010

11. A. S. Birring, “NDT Training: Basic Issues and Needs in the Houston Area”,  Presented at the ASNT Houston Chapter, February, 2009

10. A. S. Birring, ” Phased Arrays for Weld Inspection”,  Presented at the ASNT Fall Conference, Las Vegas, NV, November, 2007

9. A. S. Birring, ” Reliability in the Detection of High Temperature Hydrogen Attack”,  Presented at the ASNT Fall Conference, Houston, Texas, October, 2006

8. A. S. Birring, ” Multi-Technology NDT Inspection of Heat Exchangers,” Tokyo NDT Conference, Tokyo, May 1997.

7. A. S. Birring, “Performance of Acoustic Emission Testing for Inspection of Steam Lines,” Presented at the EPRI Conference on NDE of Fossil Plants, Baltimore, Maryland, August, 1991.

6. J. J. Hanley, A. S. Birring, W. D. Jolly, and S. J. Hudak, “Acoustic Emissions During Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth,” Presented at the 31st Acoustic Emission Working Group Meeting, Los Angeles, California, March 1988.

5. A. S. Birring, “Ultrasonic Inspection at High Temperatures,” Presented at the ASNT Fall Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, September 1986.

4. A. S. Birring and D. G. Alcazar, “Ultrasonic Inspection of Expansion Bellows,” Presented at the ASNT Spring Conference, Tulsa, Oklahoma, March 1986.

3. G. P. Singh and A. S. Birring, “Signal Processing Methods for Positive Identification and Sizing of IGSCC,” Presented at the ASNT Digital Signal Acquisition and Processing Topical Conference, Dallas, Texas, May 1985.

2. A. S. Birring and W. D. Jolly, “Detection of Cracks in Expansion Bellows by Acoustic Emission,” Presented at the 27th Acoustic Emission Working Group, San Antonio, Texas, February 1985.

1. W. D. Jolly and A. Singh, “Acoustic Emission Test for Timber Waterfront Structures,” Presented at the 25th Acoustic Emission Working Group Meeting, Princeton, New Jersey, June 1983.

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Selected Project Reports

39. A. S. Birring, “NDT Procedure Demonstration and Qualification: UT in Lieu of Radiography as per ASME Code Case 2235” for ExxonMobil, March 2010

38. A. S. Birring, “Engineering Study: Assessment of Automated Ultrasonic Testing (AUT) for LNG Tanks”, ExxonMobil Corporation, Houston, April 2006

37. A. S. Birring, “HTHA Inspection of Heat Exchangers In Rome Refinery”, Total, Rome, Italy, June 2005

36. A. S. Birring, “Engineering Study: Assessment of Automated Ultrasonic Testing (AUT) of long seam submerged arc welds (SAW) in UOE mills of Japan”, ExxonMobil Corporation, Houston, May 2005

35. A. S. Birring, “HTHA Inspection of a Paraffin Reactor Vessel”, Total, Le Harve, France, October 2004

34. A. S. Birring, “Ultrasonic Detection of Hydrogen Attack in the Weld Heat Affected Zone,” Chevron Research and Technology Company, Richmond, California, February 1994.

33. A. S. Birring, “Round Robin Study for Detection of Wet H2S Cracking,” Materials Property Council, New York.

32. A. S. Birring, “Standard Guide for Through-Wall Sizing of Surface Breaking Cracks Using the Ultrasonic Method,” ASTM (not pubished).

31. A. S. Birring, “Performance of Acoustic Emission Testing for Examination of Steam Lines,” Houston Lighting and Power Company, Houston, May 1991.

30. S. J. Hudak, A. S. Birring, M. Bartlett, and J. J. Hanley, “Control of Corrosion-Fatigue in NGV Cylinders,” SwRI Topical Report 06-1566 for Gas Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois, August 1989.

29. J. J. Hanley and A. S. Birring, “Compensation for the Effects of Temperature on a Wear-Measurement Probe,” SwRI Final Report 17-9536, August 1989.

28. A. S. Birring and J. J. Hanley, “Measurement of Wear in Gun Barrels,” SwRI Final Report 17-1336 for AB Bofors, Sweden, August 1989.

27. A. S. Birring and D. G. Alcazar, “Evaluation of the Polymer Piezoelectric Materials for Tire Inspection,” SwRI Final Report 17-2567, February 1989.

26. R. E. Beissner and A. S. Birring, “Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for Characterization of Corrosion–A State-of-the-Art Review,” SwRI Final Report 17-7958-508 for Nondestructive Testing Information Analysis Center, San Antonio, Texas, December 1988.

25. A. S. Birring and J. J. Hanley, “Measurement of Chill Depth in Cast Iron by Ultrasonic Backscatter Method,” SwRI Final Report 17-1929-303 for S. D. Warren, Westbrook, Maine, June 1988.

24. A. S. Birring and G. J. Hendrix, “Detection of Flaws in Electron Beam Welds of Edge Flanges,” SwRI Final Report 17-2158 for UNC Naval Products, Uncasville, Connecticut, May 1988.

23. A. S. Birring, G. J. Hendrix, and J. J. Hanley, “Ultrasonic Detection of Near Surface Delamination in Composites by Ultrasonic Lamb Waves,” SwRI Final Report No. 17-2074 for General Dynamics, Fort Worth, Texas, March 1988.

22. A. S. Birring, E. Oelkers, D. G. Alcazar and J. J. Hanley, “Inspection of RSV Shells by Ultrasonics,” SwRI Report 17-1336, to A. B. Bofors, Sweden, February 1988.

21. A. S. Birring and J. J. Hanley, “Fossil Fired Boiler Tube Inspection, Vol. 2: Nondestructive Testing Computer Programs,” EPRI Report, 1987. (Under publication)

20. A. S. Birring and W. R. Arguelles, “Ultrasonic Inspection of Turbine Rotor at the Renusagar Power Company,” SwRI Final Report. No. 17-1515 for Renusagar Power Company, India, March 1987.

19. R. E. Beissner, A. S. Birring, and G. L. Burkhardt, “Exploratory Research in Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) Detection,” SwRI Final Report No. 17-8842-6116, August 1986.

18. G. A. Lamping, A. S. Birring, W. R. Meredith, and G. P. Singh, “Fossil-Fired Boiler Tube Inspection, Vol. 1, Nondestructive Testing Guidelines,” Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California, Report No. CS-4633, August 1986.

17. A. S. Birring and A. McMinn, “Ultrasonic Inspection and Failure Analysis of Expansion Bellows,” SwRI Final Report No. 17-8113 for Materials Technology Institute of the Chemical Industries, Columbus, Ohio, May 1986.

16. A. S. Birring and J. J. Hanley, “Nondestructive Measurement of Cavities Produced by Creep,” SwRI Final Report No. 17-9421, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, May 1986.

15. A. S. Birring, “Ultrasonic Factors for Inspection of Tension Leg Platforms,” SwRI Final Report No. 17-8328-217 for US Coast Guard, London, Connecticut, November 1985.

14. A. S. Birring, T. L. Allen, J. F. Crane, and T. A. Mueller, “Design of the Underwater Steel Inspection System,” SwRI Final Report No. 17-8130, Task No. 4, for Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California, October 1985.

13. A. S. Birring, S. N. Rowland, and D. G. Alcazar, “Feasibility of NDE Inspection for Spot Welds,” SwRI Final Report No. 17-8328-212, for General Dynamics, Convair Division, San Diego, California, August 1985.

12. W. D. Jolly, A. S. Birring, and V. Godinez, “Evaluation of Kaiser Effect in Pipe Steels,” Final Report SwRI Project 17-8168, American Gas Association, Arlington, Virginia, August 1985.

11. A. S. Birring, “Detection of Hydrogen Attack at the Texas Utilities Electric Company,” SwRI Final Report No. 17-8328-115 for Texas Utilities Electric Company, June 1985.

10. A. S. Birring, “Feasibility of the X-Ray Attenuation Timber Inspection Method,” Final Report to the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California, May 1985.

9. A. S. Birring, “Development of a Nondestructive Test Method for Determining the Onset of Cracking in Expansion Bellows,” SwRI Final Report No. 17-8113 for Materials Technology Institute, Columbus, Ohio, January 1985.

8. A. Singh, S. N. Rowland, and G. Burkhardt, “Detection of Corrosion in Aluminum Aircraft Structures,” SwRI Internal Report, Project 17-9366, March 1984.

7. G. P. Singh, A. Singh, and R. C. Manning, “Development of Signal-Processing Techniques for Automated Crack Sizing,” Final Report for Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California, January 1984.

6. A. Singh, “Economic Assessment of Ultrasonic Thickness Inspection of Steel Waterfront Structures,” Final Report to the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California, 1983.

5. A. Singh, “Evaluation of Commercial Digital Ultrasonic Metal Thickness Measurement Instruments,” Final Report to the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California, 1983.

4. A. Singh and W. D. Jolly, “Nondestructive Inspection Techniques for Timber Waterfront Structures,” Final Report for the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California, 1982.

3. A. Singh, “Investigation of Metallurgical Parameters Affecting Acoustic Wave Velocities in Extruded Stainless Steel Pipes,” Southwest Research Institute Final Report 17-9289, January 1982.

2. A. Singh and R. McClintock, “Development and Testing of Nondestructive Techniques to Measure the Thickness of Corrosion-Pitted Steel Structures Underwater,” Final Report for Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California, 1982.

1. A. Singh, “Crack Depth Determination by Ultrasonic Frequency Analysis Aided by Dynamic Photoelasticity,” M.S. Thesis, Iowa State University, 1980.